Bubble CPAP components
Bubble CPAP componentsEarly treatment of respiratory distress is essential to reduce infant and child mortality in resource-limited settings. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) can provide effective, affordable and non-invasive respiratory support. CPAP has been a well-established treatment in clinical practice for over 40 years. It is used to replace invasive ventilation for premature children suffering from respiratory distress syndrome.
How does a bubble CPAP machine work?Like “ventilator-derived” or “machine-derived” CPAP devices, CPAP bubble devices emerge pressure on the neonatal respiratory system through nasal tips. These tips are placed in the infant’s nostrils, forming a sealing to reduce air leaks. The bubble CPAP system consists of three major components :
1/ Gas sourceAn oxygen blender connected to a source of oxygen and compressed air. It is used to provide an appropriate concentration of inspired oxygen (FiO2). The humidified mixed oxygen then circulates through corrugated tubes.
2/ Pressure generatorIn the bubble CPAP system, pressure is created by placing the distal expiratory tubing in water. Designated pressure is determined by the length of tubing immersed.
3/ Patient interfaceNasal prongs are used as the nasal interface between the circuit and the infant’s airway. Short and wide nasal prongs provide a low resistance to air flow. It is important to apply the nasal interface to the infant without air leakage, while taking measures to prevent nasal trauma.
What is the role of the humidifier ?In a bubble CPAP machine, the humidifier promotes airway hydration. It adjusts the energy delivered to the wire to maintain humidity and reduce condensate in the inspiratory limb The humidification chamber, that holds water, is filled from a rigid or flexible water bag through the water feed tube.
Bubble CPAP machine reduces the need for invasive ventilationThe bubble CPAP machine delivers a heated and humidified mixture of air and oxygen and produces a continuous pressure during the entire breathing cycle thanks to a waterproof interface. There are different methods for delivering CPAP processing, such as Bubble CPAP, Variable Flow CPAP and Ventilation Derived CPAP. The Bubble CPAP is a simple and cost-effective method to deliver CPAP to newborns, especially premature babies or newborns with low birth weight.
Continuous pressure has several many advantages, such as opening the upper airways, maintaining lung expansion, preventing alveolar collapse at the end of exhalation, and preserving the surfactant. The essential mechanisms and benefits of CPAP treatment are:
- Maintains functional residual capacity (FRC)
- CPAP can improve lung volume recruitment, establish and maintain FRC,11,12 to help keep the lungs open
- CPAP reduces respiratory work
- Reduces respiratory work CPAP has been shown to increase the end-exhalation lung volume, which helps relieve inspiratory muscles and reduce respiratory work.
- CPAP Mechanical Ventilation for Infants
- Reduces the need for mechanical ventilation The use of CPAP alone or surfactant-associated CPAP as the primary respiratory aid was associated with reduced intubation and invasive ventilation requirements.