If available and affordable, it is always recommended to use the proper equipment that is approved by USA-Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) or similar country-specific or local health authorities. Health care providers in low-resource settings are encouraged to use similar parts or components of the bCPAP circuit as described in the set-up section of our educational modules. However, there have been a few reports that produced bCPAP with satisfactory results using a simple set-up.
If no air or oxygen sources are available, air compressors that work through electric supply or automotive battery may be sufficient to produce required air flow (no oxygen, though!). It may be lifesaving in some conditions to use bCPAP with room air to recruit the alveoli and support the airway in cases that may require pressure support but not a high oxygen requirement or until professional help arrives or transfer to higher care center achieved. Bennett et al. from Massachusetts describes a simple set-up for a bCPAP apparatus with room air (FiO 2 21%) (see link below 6) . If oxygen tanks are available but not air source, Daga et al. from India describes a way of mixing air with oxygen using an air pump to avoid using 100% oxygen (see link below 7 ). In both arrangement above, a flow meter is needed to ensure that infants are receiving proper flow.